For two decades, Wendell Smith of The Pittsburgh Courier was at the forefront of the battle for the integration of professional baseball. He called segregated baseball:
“(T)he great American tragedy! Its existence is a blot on the Statue of Liberty, the American Flag, the Constitution, and all this great land stands for.”
For Smith, the “American tragedy” was exacerbated by the fact that he felt the players and fans were further harmed because while the quality of Negro League baseball on the field was of the same quality as that of their white brethren, the off-field operations were not.
In 1943, Smith said he hoped “(F)or the day when we can actually say there is such a thing as organized Negro baseball…Schedules are not respected, trades are made without the knowledge of the league officials, players are fined but the fines are seldom paid; and no one seems to know what players are ineligible and what players are eligible in the leagues. It is a messy system.”
That same year, when Negro American President Dr. John B. Martin—a Memphis dentist who also owned the Chicago American Giants with his brother– said he was told by Kennesaw Mountain Landis that “Negro baseball will never get on a firm footing until a commissioner is appointed and a sound treasury built up.”
“The sports scribes of the Negro press have been yelping to the high heavens for years for a real boss in Negro baseball.”
In 1946, when Baseball Commissioner A.B. “Happy” Chandler told the Negro League magnates to “Get your house in order,” The Courier story—which contained no byline but was likely written by Smith—said Chandler had told “Negro baseball the same thing everybody else has been telling it for five years.”
And, when the magnates said in response they were willing to improve the organizational structure of the Negro American and National League, Smith said in his column:
“It is significant to note, dear reader, that this concern is not motivated by a desire to improve the status of the Negro player, but simply to protect their own selfish interests.”
Of the Negro League magnates, he said:
“The truth of the matter is this: Few, if any, of the owners in Negro baseball, are sincerely interested in the advancement of the Negro player, or what it means in respect to the Negro race as a whole. They’ll deny that, of course, and shout to the highest heavens that racial progress comes first and baseball next. But actually, the preservation of their shaky, littered, infested, segregated baseball domicile comes first, last, and always.”
Later in the column, he accused the owners of caring for nothing except:
“(T)he perpetuation of the ‘slave trade’ they had developed via the channels of segregated baseball.”
Smith felt integration was not only critical for the “advancement of the Negro player” and “the race as a whole,” but also critical to the Negro Leagues themselves.
In response to a letter written by Hubert Ballentine, an outfielder for the semi-pro East St. Louis Colts, which echoed the sentiments of many claiming integration would be the death knell of the Negro Leagues, Smith said:
“Negro baseball cannot be a success without major league cooperation. Proof of that contention exists right today. Our players receive salaries that the average big league player would scorn. Our players receive less money per month than players in the class ‘B’ minor leagues… (I) believe that anything done by the majors to improve the status of Negro players will prove beneficial and advantageous to Negro baseball in every way.”
Smith held onto that belief through the signing and debut of Jackie Robinson, believing an organized Negro League could “(L)ine up with the majors and serve as recruiting grounds.”
Much of his hope for a long-term place for the Negro Leagues in organized baseball was lost in January of 1948, after the San Diego Padres of the Pacific Coast League, signed 22-year-old Chicago American Giants catcher John Ritchey, who had won the Negro American League batting title in 1947.
Dr. John B. Martin—the American Giants owner and Negro American League President—protested the signing to Commissioner Chandler, claiming San Diego “had stolen Richey.”
Smith picked up the story:
“(Martin) demanded an investigation.
“But before Chandler could go to work on the case, he asked Martin to send him a duplicate of Richey’s contract for the past season…when Martin searched through his files—or whatever in the word he uses to keep such important documents—there was no contract to be found. He then called in Candy Jim Taylor, manager of the club. ‘I want Richey’s contract for last season,’ he said. ‘I need to send it to Chandler.’
“Taylor raised his eyebrows in surprise. ‘I don’t have his contract,’ he said. ‘You’re the owner and you sign the ball players.”
Taylor had not.
“Martin had to write Chandler to tell him he could not find Richey’s contract. ‘But,’ he wrote, ‘he’s still my property. He played on my club all last year.’
“The commissioner must have rolled in the aisle when he learned of this laxity on the part of the president of the Negro American League. Obviously, he has been operating his club on an Amos ‘n’ Andy basis.
“Chandler then wrote to Martin: ‘The Executive Council of Baseball would want to handle, with the most careful ethics the cases of organized baseball taking players from the Negro Leagues. At present , I am somewhat at a loss to know how we can hold one of our minor league clubs responsible for the violation of an alleged contract when the contract itself cannot be found, and when apparently those responsible for obtaining the contract are uncertain whether or not the ever did obtain it.’”
Smith noted that Kansas City Monarchs owner J.L. Wilkinson made the same “robbery” claim when the Brooklyn Dodgers signed Robinson:
“But like Martin, he was unable to produce a bonafide contract with Robinson’s name on it. That too, we’ll call an oversight.”
Those “oversights” said Smith, not integration of professional baseball, were what had cost the owners.
But, ever the optimist, Smith made one last effort to save Negro Baseball, with a plan that had it been successful, could be the pitch for a reality show. That story, coming up Friday